Basic guide for multicopters



Hi Guys 6 months ago I decided to make my first multicopter. 

I was used with surface models (boats and cars) and as you know, I have an Youtube channel and I thought, Why don’t I make my own flight camera, to make images I’m not able to do by myself.

After 6 months I can say that I don’t succeed to make a stable and in a fixed position flight camera. I already bought the equipment to do it and will be ready in 2014 may.

But I learned a lot! And I want to pass this knowledge to you that are starting on multicopters.

So first of all, you need to learn what is each part described on this post.

Parts

Frame

This is the first thing you need to define. What kind of multicopter will you make.

I started by a tricopter and I can say that was a bad idea. Tricopter are less stable than a quad or an hexacopter. So, if you are starting and you don´t know even how to control it, go for a small quad. Click to see the types of frames


Propeller

As you know this is responsible by pull or push the model using the air or water in a boat.

Normally a propeller can have from 2 to 4 (the one blade propeller exist's youc an find it in youtube) blades and can have several differences regarding the blade size and angle.

A propeller with les blades is more efficient than a propeller with more blades. There’s a lot of websites explaining the why of it and how to calculate the propeller size.
The most part of the motors have the best propeller size recommended for it.

Motor

Motors have some differences about the magnetic position and how it works.
In my blog you can see a post about it.

Information about electric motors




ESC
An ESC (electronic speed control) as the name says controls the speed of the electric motor. So, if your motor is a motor of 750KV with a 3S battery with 12V and you pull your throttle to 10%. Your ESC should make your motors turns at 900rpm.

The ESCs doesn’t have many differences. Basically you need to choose the Amperage that’s meets the motor espec, if it’s for brushless or brushed motor.  (you can choose a BEC, OPTA etc but this is for another day)


Flight Control Board

KK2.0
The control board is in charge by the multicopter stabilization. In a airplane the receiver is connected in the esc. So, when you “say” more throttle it’s just send this to the esc. And the airplane goes faster.

Now, in a multicopter is different.  When you “say” go right, the motors from the left side starts to run faster and the multicopter goes right keeping its level.
So, all the EScs are connected in this board and the receiver is connected on it too. Without this board would be impossible to control a multirotor.

In my tricopter I’m using a KK2.0 control board (the newest version is 2.1.5). This board is one of the boards that accept tricopters, bicopters, monocopters and some different kinds that the best boards don’t accept. This is a chipper board and doesn’t have GPS or a good stabilization. But is god to begin and you will learn a lot (30 USD).

A good control board is the Naza light (around 170 USD). it´s good for the price, but only the new models have some especial features, like Bluetooth connection 

An open source option are the the Pilot Mega ones, it´s the same price of the naza light but have more features. I bought one too and I´ll make a comparison about the Naza Light and arduino APM ones in the near future.

Receiver

The receiver is your hand in the plane, car or multicopter. It’s receives the signal that comes from the transmitter and send it to the controlboard (in a multicopter) or for your ESC and servos in a “normal” model (airplane, car, boat etc).
It can have 2 up to 8 channels  and some have the telemetry system, so can send back to the transmitter the temperatures, fuel quantity, voltage in the battery etc.




Transmitter

This device will send your commands to the receiver in the model. They can have a plant of function and the price can be something around 30 dollars up to 2 or 3,000 dollars. Depends of how many functions it has.
You need also to choose the mode of the transmitter Look for mode 1, mode 2 up to 4



Battery and charger

You will use a lipo battery and you need to know that these batteries are dangerous. The mobile phones use it and you know that some had exploded J

I did this post regarding it (is in Portuguese but you can translate.

Please read about it. Its important and you need to be informed. 
I did also a video about the chargers. take a look on it All the videos are in the end of this post.



So, First thing you need to choose is the frame. You can make a tricopter, quadcopter, hexacopter etc.

Based in your frame size and model, you need to define the motor and the propeller sizes. With the motor selected you need to choose an ESC to attend the motors specs. With this you need to choose a control board that accept you frame and your expectations (GPS to hold the position or cheap to crash, etc).

How it works

The copters movement is different from an airplane movement.

In an airplane, you are always going forward, the throttle just adjust the speed of it. To move a airplane you change the direction of the airflow in the wings using a stabilizer. The weight is on the wings and not in the motors; the motors just push the plane.


In a copter (heli, tri, quad etc) is different, the weight is on the propellers and the propellers are connected (in a multicopter) in the motor.the copter moves like a boat, it can drift, can being stopped, can go backward etc.

 So, the names of the movements are the same, but the dynamics are different.




You can look for each movement in youtube, theres a plant of movies about it. The movements you need to understand and know the names are (roll, pitch and Yaw).

Movement Airplane Copter
Roll screw movement (left or right) Go left or right (drifting)
pitch nose down or up Go frontward or backward
yaw Turns in the tail Turns in the COG point

The throttle make the airplane goes faster or slower and in a multicopter make its goes up and down.
That’s it.

Components Connections

I did a link to show the connections between each component.

Final comments 

So, if you are a noob, don’t go for a tricopter as I did. They are unstable then a quad and harden to adjust.

If you read my post about motors, my post about frames and this post. You are near a master in multicopter.

Not so far; you need to train a lot. But how to training in something that can feel from the sky?
To learn you need to see the video about the FMS.  This is what I use once we can’t go out to fly everyday (I can’t). But I can take my notebook and a transmitter, and use it in a hotel, at night (when my wife is upset), etc.

So, take a look on these videos and have a good experience. 

Videos


























charging lipo with a computer power supply


Hi guys, on this video you can see how to use a computer power supply with your balance charger!






Types of multicopter frames









Soldering

I hope this will help you! comments on the video please.

Espero que te ajude, coloque comentários no vídeo por favor.






How to use an ESC Programming Card

I think this video will explain how it works. In case of doubts send a comment in the video. 
Eu acho que este vídeo vai explicar como funciona. Em caso de dúvidas envie um comentário no vídeo.






Electronic connections in Cars, Boats, Air-planes and multirotors

Hello guys,

I just want to show in this pots how is the connection on each type of model.

Is just to show from the simplest one (cars or boats - 2 channels) to the complicated one (multi-rotors starting with 4 channels and with a flight controller) 

In the multi-rotor draw I did with a quad because is the common model, if was a tricopter would have less one esc and motor and if was a hexacopter would have more 2 escs and mottors.

CARS OR BOATS




AIR-PLANES OR HELICOPTERS





In a multicopter or areplane you can use a flight controller with gps to use the return to home option.

MULTICOPTERS 



some pictures to show!!


 

VIDEOS THAT CAN HELP
















basic information about electric motors

basic information about electric motors used in RC

postagem em português

Hi all,
I received some questions about electric motors and decided to make this post. I will try to clarify the basic doubts about electric motors.

What is KV. 

KV means the number of turns an engine so per minute per volt applied. A 3000KV motor will spin at 21,00 0rpm with a 2S battery (7V), or at 33,000 rpm with a 3S battery (11V). That's why a car or a plane are faster as we increase the number of battery cells (3s, 4s etc) and the voltage.
Therefore the higher the KV higher is the speed and lower the torque.

RPM = KV x Voltage

KV
1s
2s
3s
4s
7,4
11,1
14,8
18,5
3.000
22.200
33.300
44.400
55.500
4.000
29.600
44.400
59.200
74.000
5.000
37.000
55.500
74.000
92.500
6.000
44.400
66.600
88.800
111.000

more KV = Less torque
less KV = More torque

So a motor of 750 KV can be used in a big and heavy and slow quadcopter, and a 2000kv motor can be used in a small, light and faster mutirotor.

What is the T in a motor?

T from turns, defines the number of turns of the copper wire inside the motor. T and KV are inverse, A motor with a big T has a small KV and vice versa. 

So, more turns = more torque = less speed. Less turns = less torque = more speed. 

Brushless x Brushed


A brush-less motor doesn't need a brush because the permanent magnets are not static the part that moves are the permanent magnets, and the motor armature is static. 

So, in a brushed motor, the magnets are stopped until the motor armature is moving. because of that, we need some brushes to send the voltage to the armature.

In-runner or out-runner brush-less motors. 


both motors are brush-less (the permanent magnets moves and the stator is fixed. the most part of multcopters uses a out-runner motor and the most partof cars and boards uses in-runner motors. 

Some pictures to clarify your idea ;)

In a in-runner motor the magnet is on the axis and turns because the outside stator. Inruner (runs inside). So the energy goes to the static part and he magnets runs inside the body.



In the ourrunner the magnets are in the body of the motor, the stator is in the middle, and the role body turns. The propeller is fixed in the motor body and the motor is fixed by it's fixed side in the bottom.


 

You can see a outrunner motor on this video at 0:50s





Turnigy 9x in Flight Model SImulator


Hi all, On this post I'll show the 6 steps to use your Turnigy 9x with the flight model simulator.
to do it you just need a p2-p2 mono cable, a computer and your transmitter.

cable (can be mono)

Before use it, you need to download the FMS and the Smart Propo Plus. in your computer


After install both, you need to connect the microphone cable in the computer and in your transmitter. The transmitter will turn on automatically even with the button turned to off.

DON'T TURN ON YOUR TRANSMITTER IN THE BUTTON!

After open your FMS and automatically the SmartPropoPlus will start. Open the options in the task bar to change the configuration 

Once opened you need to chose these options like on this picture. The audio source doesn't needs to be changed if works in a first test.

 

After open the menu controls and Analog Control in your FMS, select Joystick Interface and click on Mapping/calibrate.

Calibrate your transmitter and you are ready to go.







how to make a full metal gear servo using broken Servos



I bought some Corona Metal Gear Servos and all of them had a plastic gear inside. The gear close to the motor works well in most of the cases, but could not take much effort when used in a tricopter. 

I used  two broken servos and used a second gear from one of them, To make a new gear and create a full metal gear servo.

 
After disassembling the entire servo, I positioned the sensor in the centrer position. as shown to the right picture.


A engrenagem de metal era uma pouco mais alta que a de plástico e em função disso, lixei a mesma com a Dremel até obter a altura desejada. 


After that I put the gear in place and noticed that the engine did not run because we needed to seating the gear with its new position.


To solve, put some oil and went running gear with the hand until the engine started to spin by it self.


After that I assembled the Servo and used in my tricopter.

Link of the video






Stabilized Gimbal using KK2.0



'll Show the steps to make your KK2 be able to control a camera gimbal servo.

The first step is to update the  KK2.0 firmware to 1.6.

Attention! copy the values ​​currently set in your KK2.0 because the update may erase them!

For this you need to have a USBasp AVR cable, like this below. This cable will connect your KK2.0 on your computer.



You also need to download the kkmulticopterflashtool_0.76 (or newer) for 2.0 KK2 on this address

http://lazyzero.de/kkflashtool  - search for Latest stable software versions:

Plug the USB adapter into your KK2.0, and then the computer. as shown below. Remove the connectors of ESCs and receiver. Leave only the USB card and  KK2.0




Choose these options in the program.


Click the green button to update the firmware, the manual and more information can be found on the program website.

KK2 connections


After updating the KK2.0 with the new system, you need to connect the gimbal servos in the doors: 7 and 8 in the kk2, to set up the Camera Stabilization values ​​near 500 go to menu and adjusting the value until the gimbal respond well to movements .

If the servo is turning the wrong way, reverse the sign of the value from positive to negative and vice versa.

The gimbal servos will work only with the board armed and the engines running.

REMOVE the PROPELLER BEFORE TEST !

Questions? put a comment in Video below.

[]
Succar





Cheap Camera Mount





kk2 mixer editor


Excel file to calc the mix editor values

PowerPoint Presentation